The human remains found in "The Cave with Bones", radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. The Neolithic-Age Cucuteni area in northeastern Romania was the western region of the earliest European civilization, known as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. Also the earliest known salt works in the world is at Poiana Slatinei, near the village of Lunca in Romania; it was first used in the early Neolithic, around 6050 BC, by the Starčevo culture, and later by the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Pre-Cucuteni period. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage.

Prior to the Roman conquest of Dacia, the territories between the Danube and Dniester rivers were inhabited by various Thracian peoples, including the Dacians and the Getae. Herodotus, in his work "Histories", notes the religious difference between the Getae and other Thracians, however, according to Strabo, the Dacians and the Getae spoke the same language. Dio Cassius draws attention to the cultural similarities between the two people. There is a scholarly dispute whether the Dacians and the Getae were the same people.

, the European Capital of Culture in 2007 and city of the informal European Council on 9 May 2019 ->

The largest of the Balkan countries, Romania has dramatic mountain scenery and a coastline on the Black Sea. It has seen numerous empires come and go from the Roman and Ottoman to the Austro-Hungarian. After World War II the country fell under Communist rule, although the leadership pursued a foreign policy independent of that of the Soviet Union. The legacy of Communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu lingered long after the uprising which brought about his downfall on Christmas Day 1989.

A slower developer than other former communist countries of eastern Europe, Romania took a major step away from its past when it was one of seven countries to join Nato in late March 2004. In April 2005 Bucharest signed an EU accession treaty, paving the way for Romania eventually to join the union in January 2007.

In the unique set-up of the European Union institutional structure, the Council of the European Union is the institution where the governments of the EU member States defend their own country’s national interests in the negotiation of the legislative and non-legislative files. The Council of the European Union is one of the seven institutions created by the European Union Treaties and, together with the European Parliament and the European Commission, it is involved in the drafting of the European legislation. While the other EU institutions are chaired by Presidents with multi-annual mandates, the Council of the European Union doesn’t have a permanent, single-person president and its Presidency rotates every 6 months. Every EU Member State has the obligation to hold in turn the Council Presidency and chair the its meetings at the ministerial, diplomatic and expert level.

In consultation, every Presidency sets its priorities. Romania's priorities are:

  • Europe of convergence: taking forward the negotiation process on the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework | developing the EU social dimension, through the enforcement of the European Pillar of Social Rights | advancing the EU agenda in the economic and financial fields, in order to stimulate growth and investment, to deepen the Economic and Monetary Union, as well as to support structural reforms | promoting research and innovation, digitalization and connectivity, in order to increase the competitiveness of the European economy and industry.
  • A safer Europe: strengthening the internal security, by boosting cooperation among Member States and increasing the interoperability of the EU security systems, protecting the safety of the citizens, companies and public institutions in the cyberspace and improving the overall resilience of the Union to cyber-attacks | continuing the fight against terrorism | facilitating the operationalization of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office | giving further attention to migration issues, based on a comprehensive approach to action within the EU and on promoting cooperation with countries of origin and transit, as well as facilitating the dialogue among Member States with a view to finding solutions for an effective and sustainable EU migration and asylum policy.
  • Europe, as a stronger global actor: promoting the strengthening of EU’s defence and security capabilities in strong connection with the similar processes within NATO, with a special emphasis on consolidating the Strategic EU-NATO Partnership | supporting further development of actions in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy, mainly by consolidating the current mechanisms while ensuring the synergy of the new instruments, such as: Coordinated Annual Review on Defence, European Defence Fund, and Permanent Structured Cooperation | advancing the enlargement process of the EU in order to ensure more internal and external security | promoting coordinated and coherent actions in the EU’s neighbourhood, while celebrating 10 years since the launch of the Eastern Partnership, through reaffirming the importance of the Black Sea on EU agenda, including from the perspective of reinvigorating the Black Sea Synergy | promoting the European commercial interests through both the consolidation of multilateralism and the modernisation of the multilateral trade system and through the enlargement of the Economic and Free Trade Partnership Agreements.
  • Europe of common values: promoting the efficient countering of racism, intolerance, xenophobia, populism, antisemitism and discouraging hate speech | promoting the countering of online misinformation and fake news through better media literacy and the development of European mechanisms to share good practices in countering misinformation | promoting and supporting the legislative initiatives focusing on social progress and reducing development gaps, equal opportunities between men and women,as well as ensuring access to education and training for disadvantaged categories | countering gender discrimination in the labour market and business environment as well as the pay gaps between men and women.

Romanian politics, EPIN Commentary 29 August 2012.

Romania was on a good trajectory to meet the European standards in democracy. This process began before the country’s accession to the EU in 2007 and has continued since thanks to the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM). The recent political turmoil has put in danger this trajectory. 2012 will continue to remain a very difficult year for Romania, economically and politically, especially in light of the referendum’s result invalidating the suspension of the President and the upcoming parliamentary elections due to take place at the end of this year. Now is time to restore the process of strengthening Romania’s democratic institutions and rule of law. There are important roles to be played in this process both by the Romanian political class and the European institutions.