ENERGY SOURCES AND CARRIERS
     
A large majority of currently-known fuels ultimately derive their energy from a small number of sources. Much of the chemical energy produced by life forms, such as fossil fuels, is derived from the utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis. Solar energy in turn is generated by the thermonuclear fusion process at the core of the sun. The radioactive isotopes used as fuel to power nuclear plants were formed in supernova explosions. Energy is at the top of of the political and economical agenda. Following objectives are essential to energy policy today: affordable access to energy; sustainable development of energy production, transport and consumption; and security of supply.

Below some impressions, useful information and references to energy sources and carriers such as chemical fuels, biofuels, hydrogen, fossil fuels, solar energy, nuclear, fission, (artifical) fusion, charcoal briquettes, and coal. New technologies are often combined (hybrid).


Chemical fuels are substances that generate energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of oxidization. These substances were the first fuels to be known and used by humans and are still the primary type of fuel used today.

Biofuel can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of, or derived from biomass. Biomass can also be used directly for heating or power—known as biomass fuel. Biofuel can be produced from any carbon source that can be replenished rapidly e.g. plants.

Many different plants (such as mais, palmtrees, jatropha, charcoal, agriculture-leavings) and plant-derived materials are used for biofuel manufacture. Perhaps the earliest fuel that was employed by humans is wood. Evidence shows controlled fire was used up to 1.5 million years ago at Swartkrans, South Africa. It is unknown which hominid species first used fire, as both Australopithecus and an early species of Homo were present at the sites. As a fuel, wood has remained in use up until the present day, although it has been superseded for many purposes by other sources. Wood has an energy density of 10–20 MJ/kg. Recently biofuels have been developed for use in automotive transport (for example E10 fuel), but there is widespread public debate about how carbon efficient these fuels are.

Wind energy is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity. The voice of the wind industry is WindEurope, actively promoting wind power in Europe and worldwide. It has over 500 members, active in over 50 countries, including wind turbine manufacturers with a leading share of the world wind power market, plus component suppliers, research institutes, national wind and renewables associations, developers, contractors, electricity providers, finance and insurance companies, and consultants.

WindEurope coordinates international policy, communications, research and analysis and provides various services to support members’ requirements and needs to help their development, offering the best networking and learning opportunities in the sector.

Wind energy

The US Department of Energy put together a list of the top ten things most people don't know about wind energy. Human civilizations have harnessed wind power for thousands of years. Early forms of windmills used wind to crush grain or pump water. Now, modern wind turbines use the wind to create electricity.


A wind turbine has as many as 8,000 different components. Wind turbines are big. A wind turbine blade can be up to 150 feet long, and a turbine tower can be over 250 feet tall, almost as tall as the Statue of Liberty. Higher wind speeds mean more electricity, and wind turbines are getting taller to reach higher altitudes where it’s even windier. See the Energy Department’s website to find average wind speeds in your state or hometown
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We can’t have an energy strategy for the last century that traps us in the past. We need an energy strategy for the future – an all-of-the-above strategy for the 21st century that develops every source of American-made energy.” - President Barack Obama, March 15, 2012

Most of the components of wind turbines installed in the United States are manufactured here. Facilities for building wind turbine parts are located in more than 40 states, and the U.S. wind energy industry currently employs 75,000 people. The technical resource potential of the winds above U.S. coastal waters is enough to provide over 4,000 gigawatts of electricity, or approximately four times the generating capacity of the current U.S. electric power system. Although not all of these resources will be developed, this represents a major opportunity to provide power to highly-populated coastal cities. See what the Energy Department is doing to develop offshore wind in the United States.

The United States generates more wind energy than any other country except China, and wind accounts for 35 percent of all newly installed U.S. electricity generation capacity over the last four years.


The United States’ wind power capacity reached 47,000 megawatts by the end of 2011 and has since grown to 50,000 megawatts. That’s enough electricity to power over 12 million homes annually -- as many homes as in the entire state of California -- and represents an 18-fold increase in capacity since 2000.

Wind energy is affordable. Wind prices for power contracts signed in 2011 are 50 percent lower than those signed in 2009, and levelized wind prices (the price the utility pays to buy power from a wind farm) are as low as 3 cents per kilowatt-hour in some areas of the country.

As much as 20 percent of our nation’s electricity could come from wind energy by 2030 but continued support for clean energy tax credits is critical to achieving this target. That’s why President Obama is calling for an extension on the Production Tax Credit -- to support wind producers in the U.S. and continue to help drive the wind industry’s growth.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hydrogen

Fuel Savings of 40%+ have been recorded with the On board Hydroxy Generator! Hydrogen, as an energy source, is anticipated to become the foundation for a world-wide sustainable energy system. On-demand Hydrogen is safe to use, 100% environmentally friendly. It has many potential energy uses. The US DOT says hydrogen addition increases gas mileage using lean burn conditions, while also mitigating pollution emissions without the use of a catalytic converter. NASA says hydrogen addition in- creases flame velocity, which provides more useful pressure prior to the critical crank angle.
Hydrogen can now be combined with gasoline, diesel, propane, or natural gas, and produce astonishing results. Because of the hydrogen supplement, the regular fossil fuel mixture burns more completely, thus reducing hydrocarbon emissions, while significantly increasing horsepower and improving fuel efficiency.
The hydroxy (Hydrogen/Oxygen or Hydroxy Gas or electrolysis gas) produced acts like a catalysis to your fuel. Get higher octane combustion. Utilizing oxy-hydrogen gas to boost a fossil fuel with a complete burn of all the hydrocarbons, produces a way cleaner emission.
Hydroxy boosters will work with any ICE engine, diesel too. Advanced fuel cell systems were already developed and manufactured to automatically generate, store and provide energy when and where it is needed and to provide both back-up power and power grid/renewables extension and optimization.

Electric Power System introduced the 'ElectroSelf', an enabling technology for distributed energy that self-generates its own fuel. The intelligent closed-loop system stores energy from the grid or when renewables are plentiful, and instantaneously releases energy when there is a power dip or outage.

The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) is a unique public private partnership supporting research, technological development and demonstration (RTD) activities in fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies in Europe. Its aim is to accelerate the market introduction of these technologies, realising their potential as an instrument in achieving a carbon-clean energy system.

transport and refuelling infrastructureHydrogen production and storage

Cross-cutting issuesStationary Power Production and combined heat and power

Early markets
Fuel cells, as an efficient conversion technology, and hydrogen, as a clean energy carrier, have a great potential to help fight carbon dioxide emissions, to reduce dependence on hydrocarbons and to contribute to economic growth and therefore contribute to addressing energy challenges facing Europe. They will allow renewable energy technology to be applied to transport, facilitate distributed power generation, and help Europe cope with the intermittent character of renewables such as wind power.

In 2000 five national hydrogen organisations established the European Hydrogen Association (EHA) and started a close collaboration to promote the use of hydrogen as an energy vector in Europe.

In 2004 major European industries active in the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies joined the EHA and enforced this effort to create a commercial market for stationary and transport applications and a role as market leader for the European hydrogen and fuel cell sector.

The unique membership structure has enabled the EHA to have up-close insight in local developments and to communicate important issues regarding industrial and regulatory needs to key decision makers at EU level. Since  2008 the EHA is hosting the European Regions and Municipalities Partnership for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: HYER.

CHIC, the Clean Hydrogen In European Cities Project, is the essential next step leading to the full market commercialization of Fuel Cell Hydrogen powered (FCH) buses.

Under the motto ''Let hydrogen move you in urban transport and in building smart energy networks', the EU sustainable energy week pushed further to create a commercial hydrogen market for stationary and transport use.
Throughout Europe, from
Oslo, Milan, Copenhagen, London, Antwerp and Aarau demonstrations took place.

Methanol

Methanol is the simplest alcohol. With acoholische fermentation of mixtures containing pentavalent sugars methanol can arise as a byproduct. In addition to raw material in the chemical industry, methanol can also be used as an energy source, alone or admixed in fuels. Methanol is one of the substances which could be used to store chemical energy, to transport and to use to produce hydrogen for hydrogen fuel cells. Methanol is easier and safer to store and transport than hydrogen. It would in both combustion engines and can be used directly in electrical fuel cells.

The European Hydrogen Association (EHA) started a close collaboration to promote the use of hydrogen as an energy vector
The European Association for Hydrogen and fuel cells and Electro-mobility in European Regions

Solar energy

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces.

The Greek Government, has worked on and developed the idea of a mega-project, capable of harnessing the vast solar potential of the region, project "HELIOS" which was presented officially in September 2011, at the 26th European Conference on Solar Energy.

Nellis Solar Power Plant in the United States, one of the largest photovoltaic power plants in North America.

Fossil fuels

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (liquid petroleum or natural gas including shale gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.

In common parlance, the term fossil fuel also includes hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that are not derived entirely from biological sources, such as tar sands. These latter sources are properly known as mineral fuels. Modern large-scale industrial development is based on fossil fuel use, which has largely supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat for heat.

With global modernization in the 20th and 21st centuries, the growth in energy production from fossil fuels, especially gasoline derived from oil, is one of the causes of major regional and global conflicts and environmental issues.
A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet the increased global energy needs.
The burning of fossil fuels by humans is the largest source of emissions of carbon dioxide, which is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. The atmospheric concentration of CO2, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise in response.

Nuclear

Nuclear fuel is any material that is consumed to derive nuclear energy. Technically speaking this definition includes all matter because any element will under the right conditions release nuclear energy, the only materials that are commonly referred to as nuclear fuels though are those that will produce energy without being placed under extreme duress.

Fission
The most common type of nuclear fuel used by humans is heavy fissile elements that can be made to undergo nuclear fission chain reactions in a nuclear fission reactor; nuclear fuel can refer to the material or to physical objects (for example fuel bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, perhaps mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. The most common fissile nuclear fuels are 235U and 239Pu, and the actions of mining, refining, purifying, using, and ultimately disposing of these elements together make up the nuclear fuel cycle, which is important for its relevance to nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons.

(Artifical) Fusion
Fuels that produce energy by the process of nuclear fusion are currently not utilized by man but are the main source of fuel for stars, the most powerful energy sources in nature. Fusion fuels tend to be light elements such as hydrogen which will combine easily.

In stars that undergo nuclear fusion, fuel consists of atomic nuclei that can release energy by the absorption of a proton or neutron. In most stars the fuel is provided by hydrogen, which can combine together to form helium through the proton-proton chain reaction or by the CNO cycle. When the hydrogen fuel is exhausted, nuclear fusion can continue with progressively heavier elements, although the net energy released is lower because of the smaller difference in nuclear binding energy. Once iron-56 or nickel-56 nuclei are produced, no further energy can be obtained by nuclear fusion as these have the highest nuclear binding energies.

 
ITER, An innovative aplication of sustainability energy and latin for "the way" is fusion power focussed on artifical fusion, is an innovative invention. It is a joint international research and development projects that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion power.

The partners in the projects the ITER Parties - are the European Union (represented by EURATOM), Japan, the People's Republic of China, India, the Republic of Korea, the Russion Federation and the USA.

ITER will be constructed in Europe, at Cadarache in the South of France. Expectations for results in short term should not be pitched too high. It's a long term project. The device may be operational in 2040.

Iter, artifical fusion

     
Use over time

The first use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus near 2 million years ago. Throughout the majority of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were the only ones available for human use. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for smelting metals. It was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as the forests started to became depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now commonly used as a fuel for barbecue cooking.

Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the development of the steam engine in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was later used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th century, the primary use of coal is for the generation of electricity, providing 40% of the world's electrical power supply in 2005. It can be used for energy generation by means of conversion technologies:

  • Burning: thermal analysis of material with sufficient oxygen by full burning

  • In a ferment: flows of waste are used to generate energy. Flows of leftoversof meat assimilating business, of agriculturals, from out foodstuffs industries, fertilizer, special cultivated harvest such as maizw and corn in an environment without oxygen. Bacterials swaps the organics during a few steps in biogaz in biogas

  • Gasify: thermic analyzing with a limited quantity oxygen through which gaz is caused.

  • Pyrolyse: thermic analyzing of thermic material without oxygen

  • bio-oil: collective noun. Much rapeseed and sunflower seeds, also used and purified deep fat.