LIBERTY and SECURITY
     

"I realize that all society rests upon forces. But all the great creative actions, all the decent human relations, occur during the intervals when force has not managed to come to the front. These intervals are what matter. I want them to be as frequent and as lengthy as possible and I call them 'civilization'." (E.M. Forster, 'What I believe')

Without peace we will be unable to achieve the levels of cooperation, inclusiveness and social equity required to begin solving these challenges. It is impossible to accurately portray the devastating effects that global challenges will have on us
all unless unified global action is taken. Our shared challenges call for global solutions, and these solutions will require cooperation on a global scale unparalleled in human history. We are in an epoch different to any other epoch in human
history. The history of Europe was marked by conflict for a very long time. However, it was not an unavoidable curse. A new path could be forged. After World War II political leaders that made reasonable and responsible decisions came on
stage and changed the course of history
.

 

UNSC meeting room The United States Navy's Sea, Air and Land Teams, commonly known as Navy SEALs, are the U.S. Navy's principal special operations force and a part of the Naval Special Warfare Command (NSWC) as well as the maritime component of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM). freedom, what is that? Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
David Rohde, New York Times

the spectre of a
multipolar Europe

(ECFR)

piracy on sea

video from war to peace
Europe's first war of the 21st century European Commission on Home Affairs 'In October 2010, the Hungarian government has declared a state of emergency after a third person died in flooding from a ruptured red sludge reservoir at an alumina plant. Six people were missing and 120 injured in what officials said was an ecological disaster' Caux

ICJ, ICTJ, ICC

The Last Revolution

 

common security
& defence policy (CSDP)

security and
(counter) terrorism

2009: 20 years after the fall of the iron curtain. relatonship with Pakistan is complicated
Europe after the rain II, MAx Ernst NATO HQ entrance
the Arab Israelian
conflict
predicting political hotspots Korengal Valley, Afghanistan
Carnegie Endowment War is .....06-08-1945. Culture is the temple the Parthenon 5th century BC
War and Peace
(NEXUS Instituut)
 
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On July 15, a civil airliner, departed from Amsterdam was downed out of the sky over eastern Ukraine, which is populated by armed pro-Russian separatists from the self-proclaimed People's Republic People's Republic of Donetsk and Lugansk.
But why war? How is it that millions of peopleon the order of a few people deny their human feelings and reason and fall into heinous crimes like murder, looting, treason and arson? Why the obedience of a mass to a ruling power? What force brings peoples in motion? These are the questions to which a bemused Tolstoy tries to answer in War and Peace, his epic about Russia during Napoleon's campaign in 1811-1812

 
European history in the last sixty years has been a great success. Several generations of Europeans have lived their whole lives in freedom and have, except an incursion into Georgia and the Ukraine open military conflict, not been witness to war in the Old Continent. This is a valuable legacy that we should all keep in mind and which must be responsibly managed to guarantee its future success.

The value of freedom is not only described in the report 'Europe, Proposals for Freedom, but also in the by European voice published and by Steven Blockman's drafted article 'Between war and piece', in which the European Union's record and potential as an honest broker for peace is considered and is proposed whether the idea of establishing a ‘European Institute of Peace', an initiative jointly launched by Sweden and Finland and financially supported by Norway and Switzerland, could add value to the overall peacemaking capacity of the EU.

As a result, Europe is what it is today: a space for freedom, democracy and prosperity and was possible because it was Atlantic. The very important debate on politics of war, the current poitical culture, the European ideal of civilization and safeguards for peace were at the forefront during the NEXUS Institutes' conference 'WAR and PEACE' on 19 September 2014. For 20 years, this institute studies not only the European cultural heritage in its artistic, ideological and philosophical context in order to provide insight into contemporary issues and to challenge the cultural philosophical debate, but cherises and protects it and brings it to the attention within societies.

The Schengen Agreement, together with other initiatives such as the European Single Act, realized the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) . CEPS debated the European Union's next strategy for the development of the next phase of the AFSJ, namely 'TOWARDS the NEXT PHASE of the EU's AREA of FREEDOMS, SECURITY and JUSTICE'. The existing plan, designed in The Hague Programme of 2004, expired. The Justice and Home Affairs research unit of CEPS has set out, in several contributions, the big issues and provided policy recommendations for The Stockholm Programme (2010 - 2014).

After 30 years, migration and a several attacks on 'Europe' put pressures on 'Schengen', the gradual abolition of border checks at the signatories' common borders. 'SOURCE' (Societal Security Network) spent in December 2015, 2 days in attention to challenges that Europe currently faces. The conference:
  • focused on the main achievements and challenges and limits of freedom of movement. It addressed the creation and successive enlargements of the Schengen area as well as its integration into the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. It investigated how the right of free movement relates to EU fundamental rights, European citizenship, but also the rights of third country nationals;
  • discussed the offsetting measures focusing on the control of movement. It looked into EU policies, actors and instruments involved in re-shaping external border control, policing at a distance, and the surveillance of foreigners as compensatory or flanking measures to achieve freedom of movement and it examined both the internal and the external dimensions of these measures and questions how they impact the rights and freedoms of EU citizens, third country nationals, and asylum seekers/refugees;
  • examined the criminal justice aspect, which constitutes an important component of the Schengen cooperation (SIRENE, Chapter 2, title 3 of the Schengen Convention). It tried to assess how the creation of an EU rule of law bonded area and of the principle of mutual recognition of judicial decisions and the fundamental rights of the defense in criminal matters in the AFSJ are impacting other Schengen related areas.
    It also aimed to examine the consequences of the ending of the transitional period of Protocol 36 and of the limitations introduced on the enforcement powers of the European Commission and of the judicial scrutiny of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) introduced under the old EU Third Pillar;
  • tackled the Schengen measures that focus more specifically on anti-terrorism and fighting cross-border criminality them in the broader history of police and intelligence cooperation in Europe. It paid particular attention to the issue of informalisation and institutionalization of this kind of security cooperation, touching also on the issue of anti-terrorism thereby bringing the role of EU agencies such as Europol and Eurojust. It examined the way in which Police and Intelligence Services cooperate in the area of free movement;
  • the Schengen Information System paved the way for the development of large IT-Systems in the field of justice and home affairs. It took stock of the precursor role of Schengen in the development of IT systems on information exchange and surveillance.
    Focusing on the political, technological and diplomatic dimensions of EU security databases, it was aimed to restitute current discussions about surveillance, privacy and sovereignty in their historical context. The external and transatlantic dimensions of these matters were also covered.
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Quantifying Peace and its Benefits

The Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit think tank dedicated to shifting the world’s focus to peace as a positive, achievable, and tangible measure of human well-being and progress. This institute provide the Global Peace Index (GPI), which ranks 163 independent states and territories according to their level of peacefulness. June 2017, the GPI 2017 was presented. The results find that the global level of peace has slightly improved this year by 0,28 per cent, with 93 countries improving, while 68 countries deteriorated.

The GPI covers 99.7 per cent of the world’s population, using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources and measures the state of peace using three thematic domains: the level of Societal Safety and Security; the extent of Ongoing Domestic and International Conflict; and the degree of Militarisation. In addition to presenting the findings from the 2017 GPI, this year’s report includes analysis of the Positive Peace factors that are most important for transitioning to higher levels of peace and how deteriorations in Positive Peace are linked to the rise of populism in Europe. The report also assesses the trends in peacekeeping and militarisation, including a cost/benefit analysis highlighting the positive economic benefits from early peacebuilding interventions.

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The European Commission recently launched the Security Union Strategy, a new European Defence Action Plan and European Migration Package coupled to the 2016 Smart Borders Package highlight the growing importance of addressing the challenge of European security through proposing an integrated and innovative European-led response in the digital age. We need a strong European Union like never before. It is what our citizens deserve and what the wider world expects. The EU Global Strategy sets out the EU's core interests and principles for engaging in the wider world and gives the Union a collective sense of direction. But the Global Strategy is not meant to be a paper that simply rests in our archives - it is meant to turn our shared vision into concrete, common action.

In October 2016 EU Foreign ministers decided on the most important strategic priorities for implementing the EU Global Strategy (Council Conclusions in October 2016). These are Security and Defence, Building Resilience and taking an Integrated Approach to conflicts and crises, addressing the Internal/External Nexus, updating existing strategies and preparing news ones, and enhancing Public Diplomacy.

The sustainable development goals will be a cross-cutting dimension of all this work. Human rights, peace and security, and gender equality and women's empowerment will continue to be mainstreamed into all policy areas. Moreover, to ensure that a wide range of views are included, the EU Global Strategy and its implementation will continue to build on input from numerous outreach events and analysis of the research community. The EU Global Strategy in Action:

  • Security & Defence
  • Building Resilience and taking an Intergrated Approach
  • Strengthening the Internal/External Nexus
  • Updating existing strategies or preparing new ones
  • Enhancing Public Diplomacy
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In 2012, the present Deputy Prosecutor lectured on ICC's role to share some reflections on issues relating to justice, peace and security. The website Vision of Humanity focuses on the major issues facing us in the 21st century and it is going to try and bring a balanced approach with factual information that is positive and solution based. To settle legal disputes and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions:
  • the International Court of Justice (ICJ) was established in 1945, to prosecute serious crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia;
  • to trial their perpetrators, the ad hoc court the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, a body of the United Nations was founded and;
  • to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression (although it cannot, until at least 2017, exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression) the International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being on 1 July 2002.
the Court, the principal judicial organ of the United Nations
  Responsibility to Protect
The ICC is participating in a global fight to end impunity, and through international criminal justice, the Court aims to hold those responsible accountable for their crimes and to help prevent these crimes from happening again. The Court cannot reach these goals alone. As a court of last resort, it seeks to complement, not replace, national Courts. Governed by an international treaty called the Rome Statute, the ICC is the world’s first permanent international criminal court.

​​The ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore only exercise its jurisdiction when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer investigations to the Court. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, and the Registry. The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates proceedings before the Judicial Division. The Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the administrative functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit, and public defense office. The establishment of an international tribunal to judge political leaders accused of international crimes was first proposed during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the First World War by the Commission of Responsibilities.

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Royal United Services Institute  
discussion on war: Paul Wolfowitz, William Fallon, James Rubin, Lilia Shevtsova, Jean Marie Guehenno, Dan Diner and Horia, Roman Patapievici
discussion on peace: Lila Azam Zanganeh, Hassan Mneimneh, Avishai Margalit, Robert Cooper and Masafumi Ishii
war
and
peace

Authority that does not exist for liberty is not authority but force'. (Lord Acton)

'I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it'. (Voltaire)