LANGUAGES
     
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated since Gorgias and Plato in Ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000.

 

The Internet, created in the '70s by Darpa (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), has changed the way we communicate, share knowledge, socialize or do business on a true global level. The vast majority of the users treat the internet with respect. However, we witness a growing misuse of the Internet. Examples of fake news, pirating, cyber bullying, flaming or Identity theft are daily news pose serious challenges to the accountability of the net. Accountability for their acts and omissions and under certain conditions of the malign utilization of their infrastructure. This triggered to create the Association for Accountability and Internet Democracy (AAID), which has the objectives the protection of private integrity and of social values (i.e. democratic values) on the internet.

The Internet does not own and is open to everyone. Content inside the Internet depends on (local) behaviour, the composition of Internet users is very diverse and so are involved organizations facilitating internet (providers, platforms, telecoms). However, there are several organizations dealing with Internet Governance (eg Global Commission on Internet Governance, ICANN), pay attention to further development in use (UNESCO and World Wide Web Consortium) and to regulations (the European Commission): EU / Digital Single Market (DSM) on Internet Accountability and modernized EU privacy rules (ePrivacy Directive).

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Indo-European languages

Most European languages are Indo-European languages. This large language-family is descended from a common language that was spoken thousands of years ago, which is referred to as Proto-Indo-European.

Albanian

The language, also known as Shiptar are made up of two major dialects, Geg and Tosk spoken in the country of Albania, but Albanian speaking minorities in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; as one of two major languages in Kosovo, Serbia; and some Albanian speakers living in parts of Montenegro.

Armenian

The Armenian language is widely spoken as the majority language in Armenia which was under the Soviet Union until 1991. There are Armenian speakers in globally scattered communities of the Armenian diaspora in Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas (in North and South America).

Baltic languages

Curonian, Galindian (extinct), Latgalian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct), Samogitian, Selonian (extinct), Semigallian (extinct) and Sudovian (extinct)

Celtic languages

Goidelic (Gaelic)

Germanic languages

The Germanic languages in Europe

Low Franconian and Low German (West Germanic), High German (West Germanic), Insular Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic), Continental Anglo-Frisian (West Germanic), East North Germanic, West North Germanic
Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages
.

West Germanic

East Germanic

Greek

The official language of Greece has a history as part of the legacy of ancient Greece. Greek and Latin, the language of the Roman Empire are used in professional fields such as science and literature. Greek speakers live in nearby countries, also an official language of Cyprus and small Greek enclaves of Albania, Bulgaria, Italy, the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, Romania and Turkey, and in Greek communities around the world in all six continents.

Italic languages

Romance languages

The Romance languages descended from the Vulgar Latin spoken across most of the lands of the Roman Empire.

Ibero-Romance languages and dialects

Gallo-Romance languages

Italo-Romance languages

Rhaeto-Romance languages

Eastern Romance languages