Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. Scientists now believe that modern humans emerged from Africa 160,000 years ago. Around 50,000 years ago these humans began to disperse from Africa reaching all the habitable continents. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, scientists conclude that music must have been present in the ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the world. Consequently music must have been in existence for at least 50,000 years and the first music must have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life.
Die Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler Berlin wurde 1950 unter dem Namen Deutsche Hochschule für Musik gegründet. Sie bildet ca. 500 Studierende im Herzen Berlins aus.
Etruscan musici



musicmap | Early music | Renaissance in music | interim | the Baroque era | the story of Gibson ex-Huberman | the piano | Classical period | Romantic period | 20th Century (jazz, gypsy music)


A culture's music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture, including social and economic organization and experience, climate, and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses, the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions and periods.

"Music history" is the distinct subfield of musicology and history which studies music (particularly western art music) from a chronological perspective. Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Traditional Native American and Australian Aboriginal music could be called prehistoric, but the term is commonly used to refer to the music in Europe before the development of writing there. It is more common to call the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents – especially that which still survives – folk, indigenous, or traditional music. The prehistoric era is considered to have ended with the development of writing, and with it, by definition, prehistoric music. "Ancient music" is the name given to the music that followed. The "oldest known song" was written in cuneiform, dating to 4,000 years ago from Ur. It was deciphered by Prof. Anne Draffkorn Kilmer (University of Calif. at Berkeley), and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient gymel (Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, Sounds from Silence, 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729), and also was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale.

Double pipes, such as used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX.12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate polyphony. One pipe in the aulos pairs (double flutes) likely served as a drone or "keynote," while the other played melodic passages. Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley civilization archaeological sites. In ancient Greece, mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual reasons. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a kithara. Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of development; Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, eventually became the basis for Western religious music and classical music.

Later, influences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of art, ecclesiastical and concert music. A music is classical if it includes some of the following features: a learned tradition, support from the church or government, or greater cultural capital. Classical music is also described as complex, lasting, transcendent, and abstract. In many cultures a classical tradition coexisted with traditional or popular music, occasionally for thousands of years, and with different levels of mutual borrowing with the parallel tradition.



Musicmap attempts to provide the ultimate genealogy of popular music genres, including their relations and history. It is the result of more than seven years of research with over 200 listed sources and cross examination of many other visual genealogies. Its aim is to focus on the delicate balance between comprehensibility, accuracy and accessibility. In other words: the ideal genealogy is not only complete and correct, but also easy to understand despite its complexity. This is a utopian balance that can never be achieved but only approached. By choosing the right amount of genres, determining forms of hierarchy and analogy and ordering everything in a logical but authentic manner, a satisfactory balance can be obtained. Said balance is always the main subject of discussion in music genre genealogies and the capital reason why an absolute visual reference has been absent thus far (and probably always will be). Musicmap is a platform in search for the perfect balance of popular music genres to provide a powerful tool for educational means or a complementary framework in the field of music metadata and automatic taxonomy.

The main conceptual methods of musicmap to achieve a satisfactory equilibrium consist of grouping closely related genres together (“sibling genres”), color coding much larger genre groups (“super-genres”), and introducing a deeper layer of lesser influential subgenres. Hereby the total amount of the intermediate or main genres could be reduced to 234. This is deliberately far from the possible total amount of genres (approximately 600 or more, some sources claim over 1000) to enable easy orientation and good overview. Special attention was given to inter-categorical relationships, with a different style for primary links (parent genres), secondary links (other influences) and anti-links (backlashes) to make the chart more accurate. Horizontal timelines provide clear information about which year each genre emerged, although for most genres this is disputable, which is why the timelines are faded in the background and surplus information is added in separate genre descriptions. These descriptions provide the subtleties that cannot be made visually clear in order to completely understand the sociological, semantic and technical context of their respective genres. Out of respect for the power of music and to increase readability, all genre names are capitalized.

Musicmap combines the advantages of large mega genealogies (>500 genres) with those of synoptic overviews (<50 genres) by working with different levels of detail on its visual genealogy, referred to as the “Carta”. The upper level displays only the super-genres. The lower level forms the principal subject of the aforementioned balance, where the main genres are listed.

When you zoom musicmap you will see the bifurcation in all subgenres. "You start with setting out the broad outlines, for example, you go chronologically work or not, then you work through very first major genres (blues, jazz, ...) and will you refine. Standing on the map 234 genres, but it was absolutely not intended to identify all genres, because there are much more, more than 1,000. " Of any genre, there are YouTube videos of examples online. It goes from genres such as Detroit techno, trance and hill country blues about horror punk and psychobilly to dark wave and cold wave. Crauwels itself has also discovered many new genres. "Among other synth wave, I am greatly faded, which is something very recents which is still quite underground, it drives a bit on the Internet culture, Kavinsky is the most popular example of this."


Early music  
Early music is a general term used to describe music in the European classical tradition from after the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476 CE, until the end of the Baroque era in the middle of the 18th century. Music within this enormous span of time was extremely diverse, encompassing multiple cultural traditions within a wide geographic area; many of the cultural groups out of which medieval Europe developed already had musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified these cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and its music served as the focal point for musical development for the first thousand years of this period. Very little non-Christian music from this period survived, due to its suppression by the Church and the absence of music notation; however, folk music of modern Europe probably has roots at least as far back as the Middle Ages
While musical life was undoubtedly rich in the early Medieval era, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only repertory of music which has survived from before 800 to the present day is the plainsong liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant. Pope Gregory I, who gave his name to the musical repertory and may himself have been a composer, is usually claimed to be the originator of the musical portion of the liturgy in its present form, though the sources giving details on his contribution date from more than a hundred years after his death. Many scholars believe that his reputation has been exaggerated by legend.
Most of the chant repertory was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory and Charlemagne. During the 9th century several important developments took place:

First, there was a major effort by the Church to unify the many chant traditions, and suppress many of them in favor of the Gregorian liturgy.
Three Choirs Festival

Three Choirs Festival

Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organum. Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted. Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after 1100: the St. Martial school of organum, the music of which was often characterized by a swiftly moving part over a single sustained line; The Notre Dame school of polyphony, which included the composers Léonin and Pérotin, and which produced the first music for more than two parts around 1200; the musical melting-pot of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, a pilgrimage destination and site where musicians from many traditions came together in the late Middle Ages, the music of whom survives in the Codex Calixtinus; and the English school, the music of which survives in the Worchester Fragments and the Old Hall Manuscript. Alongside these schools of sacred music a vibrant tradition of secular song developed, as exemplified in the music of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger. Much of the later secular music of the early Renaissance evolved from the forms, ideas, and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours, courtly poets and itinerant musicians, whose culture was largely exterminated during the Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century.

Forms of sacred music which developed during the late 13th century included the motet, conductus, discant, and clausulae. One unusual development was the Geisslerlieder, the music of wandering bands of flagellants during two periods: the middle of the 13th century (until they were suppressed by the Church); and the period during and immediately following the Black Death, around 1350, when their activities were vividly recorded and well-documented with notated music. Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or apocalyptic texts.

The 14th century in European music history is dominated by the style of the ars nova, which by convention is grouped with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with early Renaissance ideals and aesthetics. Much of the surviving music of the time is secular, and tends to use the formes fixes: the ballade, the virelai, the lai, the rondeau, which correspond to poetic forms of the same names. Most pieces in these forms are for one to three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: famous composers include Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini.


  Renaissance in music
Portrait of Renaissance composer Claudio Montiverdi in Venice, 1640, by Domenico Fetti
The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike the Renaissance in the other arts, it did not begin in Italy, but in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern France, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The style of the Burgundian composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and mannered style of the late 14th century ars subtilior, and contained clear, singable melody and balanced polyphony in all voices. The most famous composers of the Burgundian school in the mid-15th century are Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, and Antoine Busnois.

By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers from the Low Countries and adjacent areas began to overspread Europe, moving especially into Italy where they were employed by the papal chapel and the aristocratic patrons of the arts, such as the Medici, the Este family in Ferrara, and the Sforza family in Milan. They carried their style with them: smooth polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as appropriate. Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time were the mass, the motet, and the laude; secular forms included the chanson, the frottola, and later the madrigal.

The invention of printing had an immense influence on the dissemination of musical styles, and along with the movement of the Franco-Flemish musicians throughout Europe, contributed to the establishment of the first truly international style in European music since the unification of Gregorian chant under Charlemagne seven hundred years before. Composers of the middle generation of the Franco-Flemish school included Johannes Ockeghem, who wrote music in a contrapuntally complex style, with varied texture and an elaborate use of canonical devices; Jacob Obrecht, one of the most famous composers of masses in the last decades of the 15th century; and Josquin Desprez, probably the most famous composer in Europe before Palestrina, and who during the 16th century was renowned as one of the greatest artists in any form.

The connection of the music environment of Greece with that of the European Renaissance can be traced mainly in Crete until 1669, where its vivid urban music benefited from the creative assimilation with the venetian culture. The most important musical figure of Crete was Fragiskos Leondaritis (Francesco Leondariti or Londariti), organist and composer of sacred and secular music. Another key-figure of that era was Ieronimos o Tragodistis (Hieronymus the Chanter), a Cypriot student of Gios. Zarlino, who flourished around 1571 and, among others, proposed a system that enabled medieval Byzantine chant to correspont to the current contrapuntal practices via the cantus firmus paraphrase. In the 18th century art music was mainly cultivated in Ionian Islands, where from 1733 opera became the most distinctive music genre. This dynamic had as a consequence in 19th century, composers like Nikolaos Mantzaros (Niccolo Calichiopulo Manzaro, 1795 - 1872), Spyridon Xyndas (1812 - 1896), Pavlos Karrer (Paolo Carrer, 1829-1896) and Spyridon Samaras (1861 - 1917) to revitalize Greek art music.
Instrumental music was also cultivated in 19th century by composers, such as Dionysios Rodotheatos from Ithaca and Dimitris Lialios from Patras, both of them adopting the -with the broader sense-wagnerian novelties in the style and aesthetics. In the first decade of 20th century, the social and historical conditions enabled the revisiting of nationalism in music by the composers of the so-called 'National School'.

The prevailing current for 'national music' was that of Manolis Kalomiris, which eventually became wider accepted compared to that of Georgios Lambelet. 'National School' succeeded in concentrating under its aesthetic 'credo' composer with different backgrounds, such as Marios Varvoglis, Petros Petrides, Dimetrios Levidis, Aimilios Riadis or Antiohos Evagellatos. On the other hand, modernism made also its appearance with Nikos Skalkottas, a student of Arn. Schoenberg, being the most notable (and at the same time, neglected) representative.

Dimitris Mitropoulos also contributed to the music literature of Greek modernism before committing himself to conducting.

After the Second World War modernism began to prevail, with considerable difficulty, mainly because of the social and political conditions of the postwar period in Greece, as well as the dominance of the 'National School'. However, composers like Mihalis Adamis, Thodoros Antoniou, Iannis Xenakis, Y.A. Papaioannou and Janni Christou succeeded in giving new perspectives to such aesthetic ways.

In the maintime, a strong current of populism related to the political conditions especially after 1949, as well as to the brief change of taste of the urban class and the initiation of the touristic enterprise in 1960s, enabled the gradual promotion of the popular song as the prevalent form, which the last decades has regretably become synonymous to 'Greek music', as a whole.


Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing complexity of counterpoint; possibly the most extreme expression of this tendency is in the music of Nicolas Gombert, whose contrapuntal complexities influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzona and the ricercar, ultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms.

By the middle of the 16th century, the international style began to break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became evident: a trend towards simplicity in sacred music, as directed by the Counter-Reformation Council of Trent, and as exemplified in the austere perfection of the music of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; a trend towards complexity and chromaticism in the madrigal, which reached its extreme expression in the avant-garde style of the Ferrara School of Luzzaschi, and the late century madrigalist Carlo Gesualdo; and the grandiose, sonorous music of the Venetian school, which took advantage of the architecture of the Basilica San Marco di Venezia to create a music of antiphonal contrasts. The music of the Venetian school can be seen on the cusp of the Renaissance and the Baroque eras, and included the development of orchestration, ornamented instrumental parts, and continuo bass parts, all of which occurred within a span of several decades around 1600. Famous composers in Venice included the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovanni, as well as Claudio Monteverdi, one of the most significant innovators at the end of the era.

Most parts of Europe had active, and well-differentiated, musical traditions by late in the century. In England, composers such as Thomas Tallis and William Byrd wrote sacred music in a style similar to that written on the continent, while an active group of home-grown madrigalists adapted the Italian form for English tastes: famous composers included Thomas Morley, John Wilbye and Thomas Weelkes. Spain developed instrumental and vocal styles of its own, with Tomás Luis de Victoria writing refined music similar to that of Palestrina, and numerous other composers writing for a new instrument called the guitar.

Germany cultivated polyphonic forms built on the Protestant chorales, which replaced the Roman Catholic Gregorian Chant as a basis for sacred music, and imported wholesale the style of the Venetian school (the appearance of which defined the start of the Baroque era there). In addition, German composers wrote enormous amounts of organ music, establishing the basis for the later spectacular flowering of the Baroque organ style which culminated in the work of J.S. Bach, composer of 'The Coffee Cantata' (BWV 211), which amusingly tells of an addiction to coffee. The work is likely to have been first performed at the coffeehouse Zimmerman in Leipzig.
France developed a unique style of musical diction known as musique mesurée, used in secular chansons, with composers such as Guillaume Costeley and Claude Le Jeune prominent in the movement

One of the most revolutionary movements in the era took place in Florence in the 1570s and 1580s, with the work of the Florentine Camerata, who ironically had a reactionary intent: dissatisfied with what they saw as contemporary musical depravities, their goal was to restore the music of the ancient Greeks. Chief among them were Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer, and Giulio Caccini. The fruits of their labors was a declamatory melodic singing style known as monody, and a corresponding dramatic form consisting of staged, acted monody: a form known today as opera. The first operas, written around 1600, also define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque eras. With its much vaunted strong and clear voice and his exceptional range sang countertenor Andreas Scholl as no other major works from the Baroque and Renaissance. In a unique lecture at the Nexus Institute, he spoke about beauty and truth in music. Because what makes the performance of a musical sincerity? Wherein lies the beauty of the music and how you call them as a performer?

Music prior to 1600 was modal rather than tonal. Several theoretical developments late in the 16th century, such as the writings on scales on modes by Gioseffo Zarlino and Franchinus Gaffurius, led directly to the development of common practice tonality. The major and minor scales began to predominate over the old church modes, a feature which was at first most obvious at cadential points in compositions, but gradually became pervasive.
Music after 1600, beginning with the tonal music of the Baroque era, is often referred to as belonging to the common practice period.

Bach regularly directed a musical ensemble based at Zimmermann's coffee house called the Collegium Musicum. Browse to the page about coffeehouses.

Countertenor Andreas Scholl gave a memorable Nexus college in the Concertgebouw, where he spoke about his training, concert experience and artistic motivations. The lecture was preceded by a concert with the Combattimento Consort and followed by questions from the audience.


the Baroque era  
Instrumental music became dominant in the Baroque, and most major music forms were defined. Counterpoint was one of the major forces in both the instrumental and the vocal music of the period. Although a strong religious musical tradition continued, secular music came to the fore with the development of the sonata, the concerto, and the concerto grosso. Much Baroque music was designed for improvisation, with a figured bass provided by the composer for the performer to flesh out and ornament.

The keyboard, particularly the harpsichord, was a dominant instrument, and the beginnings of well temperament opened up the possibilities of playing in all keys and of modulation. Much Baroque music featured a basso continuo consisting of a keyboard, either harpsichord or organ (sometimes a lute instead), and a bass instrument, such as a viola da gamba or bassoon.
The three outstanding composers of the period were Johann Sebastian Bach, George Friedrich Handel, and Antonio Vivaldi, but a host of other composers, some with huge output, were active in the period

Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments widely used before the piano (a shortened word for pianoforte), the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. The invention of the piano is credited to Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731) of Padua, Italy, who was employed by Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany, as the Keeper of the Instruments. Cristofori was an expert harpsichord maker.

Johan Sebastian Bach is one of the most notable composers of the Baroque period Clavecin_flamand (The harpsichord) played a central role in a great deal of Baroque music


the story of Gibson ex-Huberman  
Strandivari "Gibson ex-Huberman" (1713). The violin was made in 1713 by Antonio Stradivari in Cremona in the Italian Lombardy. The "Gibson ex-Huberman" was named by the Polish violinist Bronislaw Huberman (1882-1947), to whom he was stolen Feb. 28, 1936 during a recital at Carnegie Hall. The violin does not reappear until the May 8, 1987, and it was not until three months later that the "Gibson", with restoration already completed, was placed in a glass case of a Cremonese palace. Violinist Joshua Bell violin purchased in 2003.
'A message of courage, determination , and an endless faith in the power of music'. 23 May 2014, I had the good fortune to attend the NEXUS Institutes' symposium on 'The power of music'. What is the power of music ? What can music, art, culture do for us in times of war and hate? How a violin could become a symbol of resistance and hope, and how music makes the past sound.
Violinist and conductor Joshua Bell and patron Sigmund Rolat told the fascinating story of the Stradivarius violin from the possession of Bronislaw Huberman, the legendary master violinist and founder of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra (1936 ) - later Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

On this violin Joshua Bell gave a few years ago a historic concert in the former synagogue, now concert Hall of the Polish pilgrimage Czestochowa - birthplace of both Huberman and Rolat. Bell played the Brahms Violin Concerto, which was performed in 1896 by the then 14 -year-old on the same Huberman Stradivarius in the presence of the composer himself . Hence, the violin evolved to become the symbol of the invincible power of music and civilization. On this story, film director Haim Hecht made ​​the touching documentary "The Return of the Violin."

Joshua Bell and Sygmund Rolat

Bach's Chaconne

The piano
"The piano was one of capitalism’s great inventions, and from the early nineteenth century it was ingeniously marketed to the world, with a legion of teachers offering musical education to the young. For a respectable Victorian woman, playing the piano was as important as her purity. Franz Liszt, the emperor of virtuosity, grew long hair, wildly tossing and turning it about, just as today’s rock stars do, without knowing they emulate Liszt.
But from around 1860, as professional pianists became entranced with the serious masterpieces composed by the likes of Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn and Chopin, the once glamorous and aspiring word ‘virtuoso’ was demeaned with a hint of charlatanism and vulgarity. Fun flair and keyboard wizardry were frowned upon by many a snob. Recitals were now serious cultural affairs. Today, pianists perform the historical classic literature, but the amateur pianist has all but died out; young people grow up wanting to be a ‘rocker’, not an interpreter of the three Bs.", the NEXUS Institute wrote in the brochure regarding its special attention to the acoustic stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700. In June 2017, the institute organised the symposium 'Virtuoso!', with piano expert and teacher at Julliard David Dubal and impresario Marco Riaskoff as speakers, and pianists Barbara Nissman and Rexa Han as performers.


  Classical period
Chopin playing the piano


Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
The music of the Classical period is characterized by homophonic texture, or an obvious melody with accompaniment. These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable, allowing composers at the time to actually replace singer(s) as the focus of the music. Instrumental music therefore quickly replaced opera and other sung forms (such as oratorio) as the favorite of the musical audience and the epitome of great composition. This is not to say that opera disappeared. Indeed, during the classical period, several composers began producing operas for the general public, in their native languages (previous operas were generally in Italian). Along with the gradual displacement of the voice in favor of stronger, clearer melodies, counterpoint also typically became a decorative flourish, often used near the end of a work or for a single movement. In its stead, simple patterns, such as arpeggios and, in piano music, Alberti bass (an accompaniment with a repeated pattern typically in the left hand) were used to liven the movement of the piece without creating a confusing additional voice.

The now popular instrumental music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the symphony, and the concerto, though none of these forms were specifically defined or taught at the time as they are now in the field of music theory. All three derive from sonata form, which is used to refer both to the overlying form of an entire work and the structure of a single movement. Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. The early Classical period was ushered in by the Mannheim School, which included such composers as Johann Stamitz, Franz Xaver Richter, Carl Stamitz, and Christian Cannabich. It exerted a profound influence on Joseph Haydn and, through him, on all subsequent European music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was the central figure of the Classical period, and his phenomenal and varied output in all genres and by the quantity set forth in the 'KV' (Köchel verzeichnisch), defines our perception of the period. Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert were transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their expansion of existing genres, forms, and even functions of music.

The German song is one of the most beautiful forms of musical Kleinkunst. In the German speaking part of Europe, the art of song in the 19th century rised to unparalleled highs. Composers and poets knew to elevate the combination of poetry and music to a perfect art form. And an art form that was accessible to everyone. Where there was a piano and someone could sing a little, a song sounded. From the late 18th century until far into the 20th century, Germany was flooded with tens of thousands of songs, some small and simple as an anthem, others extended and complicated as an opera scene. The full range of human emotions is to be found in the song, from 'himmelhochjauzend' to 'zum Tode betrübt', to quote Goethe, one of the largest suppliers of lyrics. Hundreds composers wrote songs, including very great as Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms.

By invitation of the Austrian goverment, I attended Friday 27 January 2006, 6 p.m. in Grosses Festspielhaus Salzburg the Gala Concert to celebrate the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadé Mozart. Cecilia Bartoli performed the motet Exsultate, jubilate, K. 165, together with Thomas Hampson the duet Là ci darem la mano from Don Giovanni as well as the aria for soprano, piano and orchestra Ch'io mi scordi di te, K. 505. An undisputed highlight of the Mozart Year 2006 with an artist endowed with so many unusual qualities and gifts. "She let her express the emotions within the music she cares for so profoundly that she overwhelms her audiences time and time again." Also violist Yuri Bashmet, violinist Gidon Kremer and pianist Mitsuko Uchida made ​​an appearance. Together with the Vienna Philharmonic, conducted by Riccardo Muti, a tribute was brought to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.


  Romantic period

Ludwig von Beethoven, piano sonata no 30 in E major, Op. 109, II Presstissimo

The title character from a 19th century performance of Wagner's opera Siegfried

In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. Famous early Romantic composers include Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz.

The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Johann Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky,
Verdi, and Wagner. Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Dvořák, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much longer – musical works.

A prominent mark of late 19th century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck.

Chopin composed amoung many other works, mazurkas and polonaises. He did his best to elevate polonaise to higher art. World famous are the 'Military' (Op.40 in A major) and the "Heroic' (Op.53 in flat major). Most of his pianopolonaises are owed to politics, or rather war. The works can be seen as as romantic desire after an unreachable homeland.

Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He was a crucial figure in the transition between the classical and romantic eras in classical music and is considered to be one of the greatest composers of all time. During his life, he composed nine symphonies, five piano concertos, one violin concerto, thirty-two piano sonatas, sixteen string quartets, two masses, and the opera Fidelio. Other works, like Für Elise, were discovered after his death and are also considered historic musical achievements. Beethoven's legacy is characterized by his innovative compositions, including innovative combinations of vocals and instruments, and also by widening the scope of the sonata, symphony, concerto, and quartet, while he is also noted for his troublesome relationship with his contemporaries. Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major, Op. 109, composed in 1820, is the antepenultimate of his piano sonatas, iIn "Missa Solemnis" early music, theology and philosophy come together, the Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67, written between 1804 and 1808, is one of the best-known compositions in classical music and one of the most frequently played symphonies, and together with the Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125, also known as Beethoven's 9th (in 1972, the musical backing (without the words) was adopted as the Anthem of Europe by the Council of Europe and subsequently by the European Communities (now the European Union) in 1985), widely considered one of the cornerstones of western music.


20th Century  
The 20th Century saw a revolution in music listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. Because music was no longer limited to concerts and clubs, it became possible for music artists to quickly gain fame nationwide and sometimes worldwide. Conversely, audiences were able to be exposed to a wider range of music than ever before.

Music performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and recording of music videos and concerts. Music of all kinds also became increasingly portable. Headphones allowed people sitting next to each other to listen to entirely different performances or share the same performance.

20th Century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. The invention of musical amplification and electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer, in the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music. An example of bringing the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated development of new forms of music is the legendary Patricia Lee "Patti" Smith (born December 30, 1946), an American singer-songwriter, poet, and visual artist who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock movement with her 1975 debut album Horses.

Called the "punk poet laureate," Smith fused rock and poetry in her work. Her most widely known song is "Because the Night," which was co-written with Bruce Springsteen and "People Have the Power". Patty Smith also stands for activism and counterculture because the message in several songs and poems.

Jazz,´ music of the moment´, comes from L.A. and New Orleans. Wittgenstein, philosopher, calls it Typusbegriff, mixtures of genres. Feature of the modern variant is the reuse of all church modes and use of complex chords. Rita Reys († 28 July 2013), lady of jazz, on stage 9-11-12 at age of 88. Click for her website
Rita Reys (†28-07-2013)

Jon Batiste
Wynton Marsalis
Other influential music that has spread across the world and expressed in many types, is gypsy music, also known as gypsy style, Romani-related music played in a characteristic gypsy style and Romani music, the original music of the Romani people who have their origens in Northern India, but today live mostly in Europe. The style is also referred to gypsy jazz, jazz played by Romani people, gypsy punk, a hybrid of Romani music and punk rock and gypsy scale, a musical scale sometimes found in Romani music.

The wide distances travelled have introduced a multitude of influences, starting with Indian roots and adding elements of Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Czech, Slavic, Romanian, German, French and Spanish musical forms. Romani music characteristically has vocals that tend to be soulful and declamatory, and the music often incorporates prominent glissandi (slides) between notes. Instrumentation varies widely according to the region the music comes from. There is a strong tradition of Romani music in Central and Eastern Europe, notably in countries such as Hungary, Romania and the former Yugoslavia. The quintessentially Spanish flamenco is to a very large extent the music (and dance, or indeed the culture) of the Romani people of Andalusia.

The sophisticated music of the Romani orchestras that visited Western Europe became popular in the second half of the 19th century and had its heyday from the 1920s onwards to about 1960, although this music remains popular still today.

The fourth release by Hungarian-Serbian group Earth Wheel Sky Band, titled Gypsy Tango (the autoplay sound), finds the band a step further on their music ladder. The band's first two releases saw the band working both with contemporary and traditional arrangements, while keeping the integrity of music from the region they come from whereas the third one " 21st Century", was a collection of side works and collaborative projects that band leader Oláh Vince undertook with the band or without.

Gypsy Tango finds the band merging gypsy music both from the north of
Serbia, which is more under the influence of Hungarian folk music and brass instruments and uneven rhythms from the south. EWS-band draws with ease from a myriad of other forms such as flamenco, reggae, soul and each song draws you to its heart, and keeps you there. This is not the first time that the band does amalgamation of different traditions as on the previous records it was done with brilliant results on tracks such as "Chochec" (from Roma Art) and Only a Man (from Waltz Romano). The band's playing is the first thing that will strike you as you start to listen to it. The EWS-band plays this music with exuberance and each musician plays with a buoyant, infectious energy. Especially arrangement wise it flows easily and is well balanced. The music ranges from soulful ballads such as the achingly beautiful "Gospel" or the dreamy "Free7/8" to folkish up tempo tracks such as "Crayngtime" and "Scheherezeda".

The album opens with gypsy Tango and is soon followed by Rumba Janika
, an upbeat track with a killer violin, swinging trumpet and wonderful rhythms. Other highlights include "ApsolutRromantic" and "Tikno Luludi". "The approach the band took on this record could perhaps be characterized as ethnic jazz but with roots and fronds of the tradition that make them irresistible. This is indispensable stuff from giants of gypsy music."