The internet is a global phenomenon, the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It has become a critical resource for the socio-economic developments as well as the cultural identity of nations. To keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable in 1998 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was formed. This corporation has a coordination role of the Internet's naming system and does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet.

To develop web standards, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), an international community, work together and to articulate and advance a strategic vision for the future of internet governance, the Centre for International Governance Innovation, addressing significant global issues at the intersection of technology and international governance, was established. World Summit on the Information Society provides us with a comprehensive set of principles on several aspects of the information society, such as the role of governments and all stakeholders in the promotion of ICT's for development, ICT infrastructure, access to information and knowledge, capacity building, building confidence and security in the use of ICT's, providing an enabling environment, ICT applications and its benefits in all aspects of life, cultural and linquistic diversity, identity and local content, role of the media, ethical dimensions of
the information society and international and regional cooperation


DG Connect
Goal 9 seeks to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

Economic growth, social development and climate action are heavily dependent on investments in infrastructure, sustainable industrial development and technological progress. In the face of a rapidly changing global economic landscape and increasing inequalities, sustained growth must include industrialization that first of all, makes opportunities accessible to all people, and second, is supported by innovation and resilient infrastructure.


disciplines of the internet | Web3 | Accountability in the Digital Age | cloud computing | internet access | the blockchain | a network of 3D virtual worlds focused on social connection: a  metaverse | DISINFORMATION and the EROSION of DEMOCRACY | generative artificial intelligence (incl. ChatGPT) | EUROPE, a digital single market


disciplines of the internet  
Internet science hits various disciplines: Computer Science, Sociology, Art, Mathematics, Physics, Complex systems analysis, Psychology, Economics, Law, Political Science, Ethics, Epistemology, etc. To strengthen scientific and technological excellence by developing an integrated and interdisciplinary scientific understanding of Internet networks and their co-evolution with society, and also by addressing the fragmentation of European research in this area, the European Commission fosters, by the EINS project (ended 31-05-2015) , the FP7 European Network of Excellence in Internet Science.

The information society, once a futuristic scenario, is now a reality. But the digital revolution is just getting started. Think of innovations such as Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), Semantic Web (a component of 'Web 3.0'), cloud computing, which is already driving new levels of flexibility and cost saving for organisations of all sizes across all industry sectors and from Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology to The Internet of Things (IoT), dealing with the interconnectivity of massive networks of objects. The Consumer Electronics Show, world’s gathering place for all who thrive on the business of consumer technologies, serves as the proving ground for innovators and breakthrough technologies for more than 40 years—the global stage where next-generation innovations are introduced to the marketplace.

Technology is crucial for improving our quality of life and driving growth in the whole economy. Europe wants to be ahead (see A Digital Agenda for Europe), where EU's funding and regulation comes in and where everybody can join CAPS, the platforms for collective awareness and action, ICT systems integrating social media, crowdsourcing mechanisms and internet of things to gather information from users and sensors, create knowledge in a distributed manner and share it among citizens, allowing them to take better informed and sustainability-aware decisions.

The Metaverse is a collective virtual shared space, created by the convergence of virtually enhanced physical reality and physically persistent virtual space, including the sum of all virtual worlds, augmented reality, and the Internet.   New technological developments touch also the question on how people undergo the changes. What rule of the game? How is it to be digital followed night and day?, will people become more happy by 24-hours availability of the internet? Our attention will crumble and concentration to do something complicated will disappear. Professor Sherry Turkle advocates a digital ethics.  
Although the Metaverse is still evolving, companies and entrepreneurs at the bleeding edge of technology are getting very excited about it. Move beyond the CGI and flights of fancy and increasingly people are being wrapped in a cloak of internet linked technologies – health and fitness monitors, personal assistants, internet enabled domestic goods, smart TVs and smart watches.

The plumbing for the metaverse is rapidly being installed, but will its users be protected? Look J.P. Morgan's view on the elements of a new digital age. The metaverse is the driving force bringing these elements together in a unified, immersive experience


During a masterclass in September 2011, organised by the NEXUS-institute, Turkle, writer of the book 'Alone Together', advocated on this. It was questioned what technology does with us and with our relationships. Is it just a tool or a new world with mobile activity?

We are taking from strangers and we are having each other on distance: 'connection makes the measure' and an impuls was introduced to react fast. Anyway, there is a difference between conversation and connection and some day we might not know how to make conversation.



Web3 is an idea for a new iteration of the World Wide Web which incorporates concepts such as decentralization, blockchain technologies, and token-based economics. The term "Web3" was coined in 2014 by Ethereum co-founder Gavin Wood, and the idea gained interest in 2021 from cryptocurrency enthusiasts, large technology companies, and venture capital firms.


President Barack Obama, Anne Applebaum, David Axelrod, Jeffrey Goldberg, Adrienne LaFrance, and Nobel Prize–winning journalist Maria Ressa discuss disinformation and the threats it poses to democracy in the first part of a conference presented by The Atlantic and the University of Chicago Institute of Politics.


  Generative artificial intelligence (AI)
Generative artificial intelligence (AI) has accelerated discussions around the transformative effect that AI will have for governments, businesses and society. The EU has notably embarked on a regulatory path for AI, with the landmark AI Act in its final legislative stages, and the EU-US Trade and Technology Council delivering a joint roadmap to lay the foundations of trustworthy AI on both sides of the Atlantic. These discussions, as well as Member States’ National Plans, have nonetheless centred on data, algorithms and building necessary digital skills to capitalize on the opportunity. Often side-lined from this important conversation, is the immense infrastructure required to develop sovereign AI applications at scale.

The case for AI to transform governments and economies is clear. From improving efficiency by automating routine tasks, to handling citizen queries, improving service delivery through chatbots, and enabling interoperable data spaces to generate novel data-driven policy insights, AI will inevitably produce enormous value for European citizens, businesses, and society at large.

The 8th edition of The Public Sector Transformation Conference  focused on the public sector’s role in addressing the surging demand for increased compute capacity across all sectors and the growing concerns to ensure Europe’s ability to scale and develop sovereign AI systems for the public sector use cases. 

ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence chatbot developed by OpenAI and launched in November 2022. It is built on top of OpenAI's GPT-3 family of large language models and has been fine-tuned (an approach to transfer learning) using both supervised and reinforcement learning techniques. ChatGPT is a member of the generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) family of language models.

There are implications for cybersecurity (writing phishing emails and malware) and academia (ChatGPT can write introduction and abstract sections of scientific articles, which raises ethical questions. Several papers have already listed ChatGPT as co-author).


Accountability in the Digital Age    
It appeared that privacy is no longer a social norm. But can there be a democracy without privacy? And is digital technology related to capitalism? Mail can be holy. How have we to look at the meaning of the word real? Physical real brings us intimacy and dreams, virtual real has no place, no sense. Let us use the virtual to enhance quality of the physical world. Privacy has to be recast political. Being conscious is a proposition. Consumers have a vow.

It is in this context and because of the fact that online social networking sites, search engines etc. deal with private matters with a low degree of respect, that the EU has drawn up GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation). GDPR replaces the Data Protection Directive 95/46 / EC and was designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all data privacy and data protection policies. The key articles of the GDPR, as well as information on its business impact, can be found throughout the website

Responsible data deals with the ethics of all types of data and data related processes GDPR: deals specifically with personal data, a specific subset. The regulation applies to non profit as well as to profit as well as to government institutions.

The 1st Hague Summit explored safeguarding the role of the Internet as a tool for personal and social engagement. Delegates at the Summit worked on increasing access to knowledge, transparency, global common understanding, evidence-based trust and accountability.

The second Summit (November 2019), represented a global multi-stakeholder community from national and local governments, international policy makers and institutes, NGOs, civil society, the ICT industry and platforms, as well as other relevant organizations. This gathering focused on Accountability in the Digital Age in the areas:

Never before have a handful of tech designers had such control over the way billions of us think, act, and live our lives.


  • (Social) Media & Journalism; Artificial Intelligence and
  • Cyber Security & Cyber Peace.

The conclusions and recommendations will contribute to shaping global thinking and policy about accountability in the digital age. To work on countering fraud, identity theft, bullying and other forms of personal harassment or exploitation through to malign social engineering, phishing and hacking attacks which can threaten key networks and even entire nations, the Institute for Accountability in the Digital Age (@ada_i4) pursue its objectives by building ongoing dialogue, both structured and informal, among participants in the internet environment.

By building and maintaining a network at national and international level bringing together stakeholders and organizing activities, meetings and congresses to highlight, support and facilitate accountability nationally and internationally. Some questionings and statements:

- Does the goal of journalism get met? Do we have a more well-informed audience? Fake news is only a small percentage of news, do not forget the mainstream
- We have a real job to do in cybersecurity and accountability (and sovereignty)
- What are new technologies bringing and how it influences the society, how is with the privacy and regulations, what are the risks, so many questions to be answered...
- ”There is a need for more involvement..self-regulation is holding us back...How can we as parliament try to get more grip on this?”
- We need to prevent technologies designed as powerful tools from being misused as dangerous weapons
- Being accountable means being subject to prosecution - statement
- We need agility in lawmaking (Peter Batt) to keep up with one of the biggest treats of #ArtificailIntelligence : the speed of development
User-oriented, secure, trustful & decentralised social media

A fully decentralised, intermediary-free and open-source solution for addressing three key challenges was EUNOMIA. This HORIZON2020 project actively encouraged democratic citizen participation in content verification by allowing voting on content trustworthiness and influencing the reputation of content generators and sharers. EUNOMIA is a fully decentralised, intermediary-free and open-source solution for addressing three key challenges: which social media user is the original source of a piece of information; how this information has spread and been modified in an information cascade; and how likely it is to be trustworthy.

Although its innovations are applicable across any social network, its design philosophy makes it ideal for evaluation on similarly open, decentralised and federated new social media networks, thus contributing against accumulation of power in the large social media intermediaries located outside Europe. EUNOMIA actively encourages democratic citizen participation in content verification by allowing voting on content trustworthiness and influencing the reputation of content generators and sharers. It combines information cascade verification with information trustworthiness scoring, benefitting from blockchain technology to ensure transparency of the scoring process and that information has not been modified in a cascade. It also places emphasis on ensuring that trustworthiness information is communicated transparently and accessibly. A General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) compliant and ethically responsible digital companion running as a local app on the user’s device encourages the involvement of each user, while also carrying out the background processing for scoring and verifying content, and crucially for visualizing to the user. EUNOMIA uses social-science based co-design methodologies acknowledging and integrating users’ experiences of social media, specifically in how they use and trust the information they interact with. EUNOMIA’s versatility will be evaluated with large communities in social journalism and traditional media, as well as the largest user community of the most popular decentralised social media networks.


Increasing access to ICT and providing access to the Internet  
Tech for change: ICT’s, internet access and the post-2015 development agenda

Increasing access to information and communications technology and providing  access to the Internet  in least developed countries by 2020 is one of the targets of the new UN Sustainable Development Goals. What are the current needs in the field, including in refugee camps? How can we achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development goals with due respect to the principles of net neutrality? These, and many other questions were addressed at this event.

Substantial growth is to expect from use of the internet, but it should be sustainable and inclusive. The internet is a force for democratization, for fight against corruption, to participate in society, for health, education and it hosts private investment. There is open internet and net neutrality (but requirements to prevent negative aspects) to benefit all the people. Many topics came to the attention. There was talk about data collection, content, how to invest in and let accelerate ict structures, to let decrease poverty and to let boost shared prosperity, how to innovate, IoT, legal aspects and e-government. Internet should be widely available against affordable prices. Change of business models could boost literacy, entrepeneurship and counter terrorism.

Digital Social Innovation (DSI) is a support action in the H2020 Collective Awareness Platforms program. DSI will support grow, and scale the current DSI network of projects, organisations, and individuals, fostering digital innovation for social good by helping communities share data, collaborate to solve societal problems, and scale their initiatives.

The initiative focusses primarily on open and distributed technologies as well as sustainable business models. DSI can strengthen social bonds, leverage civic entrepeneurship, create and share many forms of value, make cities and countries sustainable and resilient, and help to turn Europe into the hotbed of social innovation that is clearly needed.



a new way of storing and accessing information, a public register of transactions. The Blockchain can work with types of digitalcurrency and processes..
It is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of ordered records called blocks. Each block contains a timestamp (*) and a link to a previous block. The data in a block cannot be altered retrospectively. Blockchains are secure by design and an example of a distributed computing system with high byzantine fault tolerance

(*) process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document.


A blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a continuously-growing list of ordered records called blocks. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block. By design blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data — once recorded, the data in a block cannot be altered retroactively.

Blockchains are secure by design and an example of a distributed computing system with high byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralised consensus can therefore be achieved with a blockchain. This makes blockchains suitable for the recording of events, title, medical records and other records management activities, identity management, transaction processing and proving provenance. This offers the potential of mass disintermediation and vast repercussions for how global trade is conducted. The first blockchain was conceptualised by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 and implemented the following year as a core component of the digital currency bitcoin, where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions. Through the use of a peer-to-peer network and a distributed timestamping server, a blockchain database is managed autonomously. The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double spending problem, without the use of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has been the inspiration for other applications.

Blockchain is the foundation for the second era of the internet – an internet of value, where anything of value, including money, our identities, cultural assets like music, and even a vote can be stored, managed, transacted, and moved in a secure, private way. Blockchains and tokens can play a crucial role in the infrastructure layer of our digital economy and is poised to transform every industry and managerial function —redefining the way we make transactions, share ideas, and manage workflow. They offer an alternative to the current practice in which important parts of the information and communication infrastructure are proprietary: owned by corporates, governmental organizations, unicorns and (aspiring) startups. This infrastructure works much better in our globalized, interconnected society when it is “commonized”, i.e. when it becomes part of the digital commons. A commonized infrastructure provides a completely new level playing field for creating and delivering added value and thus for private companies to compete and flourish.


An organisation that aims to shed light on today’s rapid technological changes and their impact on society and its governance is The DIGITAL ENLIGHTENMENT FORUM. The FORUM stimulates debate and provides guidance. By doing so, it takes reference from the Enlightenment period as well as from transformations and evolutions that have taken place since. It examines digital technologies and their application openly with essential societal values in mind. Such values might need to be given novel forms taking advantage of both today’s knowledge and unprecedented access to information.
Future Internet Research and Experimentation in an international context (FIND / GENI, etc), by multi-disciplinary research (Resumenet)
to provide high-bandwidth connectivity and advanced services to the national scientific and academic community leading cloud platform for media and content delivery, application performance, and Web security see the brochure


European Commission - Press release

A Digital Single Market for Europe: Commission sets out 16 initiatives to make it happen
Brussels, 06 May 2015

The Internet and digital technologies are transforming our world – in every walk of life and in every line of business. Europe must embrace the digital revolution and open up digital opportunities for people and businesses. How? By using the power of the EU's Single Market. Today, the European Commission unveiled its detailed plans to create a Digital Single Market, thereby delivering on one of its top priorities.At present, barriers online mean citizens miss out on goods and services: only 15% shop online from another EU country; Internet companies and start-ups cannot take full advantage of growth opportunities online: only 7% of SMEs sell cross-border (see Factsheet for more figures). Finally, businesses and governments are not fully benefitting from digital tools. The aim of the Digital Single Market is to tear down regulatory walls and finally move from 28 national markets to a single one. A fully functional Digital Single Market could contribute €415 billion per year to our economy and create hundreds of thousands of new jobs.The Digital Single Market Strategy adopted today includes a set of targeted actions to be delivered by the end of next year (see Annex). It is built on three pillars: (1) better access for consumers and businesses to digital goods and services across Europe; (2) creating the right conditions and a level playing field for digital networks and innovative services to flourish; (3) maximising the growth potential of the digital economy.Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said: "Today, we lay the groundwork for Europe’s digital future. I want to see pan-continental telecoms networks, digital services that cross borders and a wave of innovative European start-ups. I want to see every consumer getting the best deals and every business accessing the widest market – wherever they are in Europe. Exactly a year ago, I promised to make a fully Digital Single Market one of my top priorities. Today, we are making good on that promise. The 16 steps of our Digital Single Market Strategy will help make the Single Market fit for a digital age."

Vice-President for the Digital Single Market Andrus Ansip said: "Our Strategy is an ambitious and necessary programme of initiatives that target areas where the EU can make a real difference. They prepare Europe to reap the benefits of a digital future. They will give people and companies the online freedoms to profit fully from Europe's huge internal market. The initiatives are inter-linked and reinforce each other. They must be delivered quickly to better help to create jobs and growth. The Strategy is our starting point, not the finishing line."

Commissioner for the Digital Economy and Society Günther H. Oettinger said: "Our economies and societies are going digital. Future prosperity will depend largely on how well we master this transition. Europe has strengths to build on, but also homework to do, in particular to make sure its industries adapt, and its citizens make full use of the potential of new digital services and goods. We have to prepare for a modern society and will table proposals balancing the interests of consumers and industry."

The Digital Single Market Strategy sets out 16 key actions under 3 pillars which the Commission will deliver by the end of 2016:

Pillar I: Better access for consumers and businesses to digital goods and services across Europe

The Commission will propose:1. rules to make cross-border e-commerce easier. This includes harmonised EU rules on contracts and consumer protection when you buy online: whether it is physical goods like shoes or furniture; or digital content like e-books or apps. Consumers are set to benefit from a wider range of rights and offers, while businesses will more easily sell to other EU countries. This will boost confidence to shop and sell across borders (see Factsheet for facts & figures).2. to enforce consumer rules more rapidly and consistently,by reviewing the Regulation on Consumer Protection Cooperation.3. more efficient and affordable parcel delivery. Currently 62% of companies trying to sell online say that too-high parcel delivery costs are a barrier (see the newly released Eurobarometer on e-commerce).4. to end unjustified geo-blocking – a discriminatory practice used for commercial reasons, when online sellers either deny consumers access to a website based on their location, or re-route them to a local store with different prices. Such blocking means that, for example, car rental customers in one particular Member State may end up paying more for an identical car rental in the same destination.5. to identify potential competition concerns affecting European e-commerce markets. The Commission therefore launched today an antitrust competition inquiry into the e-commerce sector in the European Union (press release).

6. a modern, more European copyright law: legislative proposals will follow before the end of 2015 to reduce the differences between national copyright regimes and allow for wider online access to works across the EU, including through further harmonisation measures.

The aim is to improve people's access to cultural content online – thereby nurturing cultural diversity – while opening new opportunities for creators and the content industry. In particular, the Commission wants to ensure that users who buy films, music or articles at home can also enjoy them while travelling across Europe. The Commission will also look at the role of online intermediaries in relation to copyright-protected work. It will step up enforcement against commercial-scale infringements of intellectual property rights.

7. a review of the Satellite and Cable Directive to assess if its scope needs to be enlarged to broadcasters' online transmissions and to explore how to boost cross-border access to broadcasters' services in Europe.

8. to reduce the administrative burden businesses face from different VAT regimes: so that sellers of physical goods to other countries also benefit from single electronic registration and payment; and with a common VAT threshold to help smaller start-ups selling online.

Pillar II: Creating the right conditions and a level playing field for digital networks and innovative services to flourish

The Commission will:

9. present an ambitious overhaul of EU telecoms rules. This includes more effective spectrum coordination, and common EU-wide criteria for spectrum assignment at national level; creating incentives for investment in high-speed broadband; ensuring a level playing field for all market players, traditional and new; and creating an effective institutional framework.

10. review the audiovisual media framework to make it fit for the 21st century, focusing on the roles of the different market players in the promotion of European works (TV broadcasters, on-demand audiovisual service providers, etc.). It will as well look at how to adapt existing rules (the Audiovisual Media Services Directive) to new business models for content distribution.

11. comprehensively analyse the role of online platforms (search engines, social media, app stores, etc.) in the market. This will cover issues such as the non-transparency of search results and of pricing policies, how they use the information they acquire, relationships between platforms and suppliers and the promotion of their own services to the disadvantage of competitors – to the extent these are not already covered by competition law. It will also look into how to best tackle illegal content on the Internet.

12. reinforce trust and security in digital services, notably concerning the handling of personal data. Building on the new EU data protection rules, due to be adopted by the end of 2015, the Commission will review the e-Privacy Directive.

13. propose a partnership with the industry on cybersecurity in the area of technologies and solutions for online network security.

Pillar III: Maximising the growth potential of the digital economy

The Commission will:14. propose a 'European free flow of data initiative' topromote the free movement of data in the European Union. Sometimes new services are hampered by restrictions on where data is located or on data access – restrictions which often do not have anything to do with protecting personal data. This new initiative will tackle those restrictions and so encourage innovation. The Commission will also launch a European Cloud initiative covering certification of cloud services, the switching of cloud service providers and a "research cloud".15. define priorities for standards and interoperability in areas critical to the Digital Single Market, such as e-health, transport planning or energy (smart metering).16. support an inclusive digital society where citizens have the right skills to seize the opportunities of the Internet and boost their chances of getting a job. A new e-government action plan will also connect business registers across Europe, ensure different national systems can work with each other, and ensure businesses and citizens only have to communicate their data once to public administrations, that means governments no longer making multiple requests for the same information when they can use the information they already have. This "only once" initiative will cut red tape and potentially save around €5 billion per year by 2017. The roll-out of e-procurement and interoperable e-signatures will be accelerated.

Next steps:

The Digital Single Market project team will deliver on these different actions by the end of 2016. With the backing of the European Parliament and the Council, the Digital Single Market should be completed as soon as possible. The Digital Single Market will be on the agenda of the European Council meeting on 25-26 June.

The mission of PRACE is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society.

On 19.5.2010 communication from the European Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions reported on 'A Digital Agenda for Europe'. The overall aim of the Digital Agenda is not only to deliver sustainable economic and social benefits from a digital single market based on fast and ultra fast internet and interoperable applications, but also to prepare for reflections on ICT policies beyond 2020. for which the foresight project 'Digital Futures' started.

The initiative PARADISO helped strongly the digital agenda for Europe and is active in the field of internet and ict and let raise the impact of the artifacts in all aspects of societies. Several events were organised to research, to make impacts clear and to give some insight in the future (see several presentation on objectives and expected outputs). Future internet and societal developments (the continuation of ICT for a Global Sustainable Future) let awaken that internet is by far the biggest artifact mankind built. On 23 November 2010 Paradiso organised follow-up workshops. A whole day agenda four sessions and a discussion on visions of the future of our societies and visions of the future internet. The subject, themes and the presence of 150 participants, including 20 speakers from various fields, made it fully worth to join the high leveled gathering.ICT FOR A GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, a third industrial revolution: Indexes going 'BEYOND GDP', Dasho Karma Ura: GNH. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) will play a central role in future, not only because ICT have become in just two decades a key driver of the development. February 2007 CEPS organized the conference: "The Future of Communications Services in Europe and the United States: The role of Regulation and Markets in a Converged World", where amoung others, the Honorable C. Boyden Gray was present to support items on the agenda:

  • The Effect of Network-Sharing Regulation in Telecoms Robert W. Crandall, Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution

    Investment in Next-Generation Networks Ilsa Godlovitch, Head of Regulatory Affairs, European Competitive Telecommunications Association

    Organizing Internet Architecture Bernard Benhamou, Senior Lecturer on the Information Society, Political Sciences Institute in Paris (Sciences Po)

    Net Neutrality Tom Kiedrowski, Policy Manager, OFCOM

    Net Neutrality and Competition Scott Wallsten, Senior Fellow and Director of Communications Policy Studies, The Progress & Freedom Foundation

    Content Development Ross Biggam, Director General, Association of Commercial Television in Europe

    The conference informed among other things about a gap between what is technically possible and the lack of fast connections and of "broaderband". Service providers and telecom companies have to work faster and have still to do a lot to bridge the gaps. It is about:

    information content and processing

  • hypermedia

    media with hyperlinks

    devices used to store information

    communications delivered via electronic or electromechanical of energy (multimedia, communications that incorporate multiple forms

    digital media, electronic media used to store, transmit and receive digitized information

    published media, any media made available to the public (mass media, all means of mass communication, broadcast media, communications delivered over mass electronic communication networks and news media, mass media focused on communicating news)communication networks and news media, mass media focused on communicating news)

    media meshing, the act of combining of multiple communication mediums to enrich an information consumer's experience

  • new media, media that can only be created or used with the aid of modern computer processing power.